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StandardDescription
collapse  History and Social Science SOL for Virginia Public Schools
Virginia SOL 1.1
The student will interpret information presented in picture timelines to show sequence of events and will distinguish among past, present, and future.
Virginia SOL 1.2
The student will describe the stories of American leaders and their contributions to our country, with emphasis on George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Abraham Lincoln, George Washington Carver, and Eleanor Roosevelt.
Virginia SOL 2.11
The student will identify George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Susan B. Anthony, Helen Keller, Jackie Robinson, and Martin Luther King, Jr., as Americans whose contributions improved the lives of other Americans.
Virginia SOL 2.2
The student will compare the lives and contributions of three American Indian cultures of the past and present, with emphasis on the Powhatan of the Eastern Woodlands, the Lakota of the Plains, and the Pueblo peoples of the Southwest.
Virginia SOL 2.3The student will identify and compare changes in community life over time in terms of buildings, jobs, transportation, and population.
Virginia SOL 2.5The student will develop map skills by a) locating the equator, the seven continents, and the five oceans on maps and globes; b) locating selected rivers (James River, Mississippi River, Rio Grande, Huang He, and Nile River), mountain ranges (Appalachian Mountains and Rocky Mountains), and lakes (Great Lakes) in the United States and other countries.
Virginia SOL 2.8The student will distinguish between the use of barter and the use of money in the exchange for goods and services.
Virginia SOL 2.9The student will explain that scarcity (limited resources) requires people to make choices about producing and consuming goods and services.
Virginia SOL 3.1
The student will explain how the contributions of ancient Greece and Rome have influenced the present world in terms of architecture, government (direct and representative democracy), and sports.
Virginia SOL 3.11
The student will explain the importance of the basic principles that form the foundation of a republican form of government by
a) describing the individual rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; and equality under the law;
b) identifying the contributions of George Washington; Thomas Jefferson; Abraham Lincoln; Rosa Parks; Thurgood Marshall; Martin Luther King, Jr.; and Cesar Chavez;


Virginia SOL CE.1
The student will develop the social studies skills responsible citizenship requires, including the ability to
a) examine and interpret primary and secondary source documents;
b) create and explain maps, diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and spreadsheets;
c) analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media;
d) distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information;
e) review information for accuracy, separating fact from opinion;
f) identify a problem, weigh the expected costs and benefits and possible consequences of proposed solutions, and recommend solutions, using a decision-making model;
g) formulate an informed, carefully reasoned position on a community issue;
h) select and defend positions in writing, discussion, and debate.
Virginia SOL CE.2
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the foundations of American constitutional government by
a) explaining the fundamental principles of consent of the governed, limited government, rule of law, democracy, and representative government;
b) explaining the significance of the charters of the Virginia Company of London, the Virginia Declaration of Rights, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, and the Constitution of the United States, including the Bill of Rights;
c) identifying the purposes for the Constitution of the United States as stated in its Preamble;
d) identifying the procedures for amending the Constitution of Virginia and the Constitution of the United States.
Virginia SOL GOVT.1
The student will demonstrate mastery of the social studies skills responsible citizenship requires, including the ability to
a) analyze primary and secondary source documents;
b) create and interpret maps, diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and spreadsheets;
c) analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media;
d) distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information;
e) evaluate information for accuracy, separating fact from opinion;
f) identify a problem, weigh the expected costs and benefits and possible consequences of proposed solutions, and recommend solutions, using a decision-making model;
g) select and defend positions in writing, discussion, and debate.
Virginia SOL GOVT.15
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the United States market economy by
a) assessing the importance of entrepreneurship, the profit motive, and economic independence to the promotion of economic growth;
b) comparing types of business organizations;
c) describing the factors of production;
d) explaining the interaction of supply and demand;
e) illustrating the circular flow of economic activity;
f) analyzing global economic trends and the relationship of Virginia and the United States to the global economy.
Virginia SOL GOVT.16
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of government in the Virginia and United States economies by
a) analyzing the impact of fiscal and monetary policies on the economy;
b) describing the creation of government-provided goods and services that are not readily produced by the market;
c) examining environmental issues, property rights, contracts, consumer rights, labor-management relations, and competition in the marketplace;
d) understanding the types and purposes of taxation.
Virginia SOL GOVT.2
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the political philosophies that shaped the development of Virginia and United States constitutional government by
a) describing the development of Athenian democracy and the Roman republic;
b) explaining the influence of the Magna Carta, the English Petition of Rights, and the English Bill of Rights;
c) examining the writings of Hobbes, Locke, and Montesquieu;
d) explaining the guarantee of the “rights of Englishmen” set forth in the charters of the Virginia Company of London;
e) analyzing the natural rights philosophies expressed in the Declaration of Independence;
f) examining George Mason’s Virginia Declaration of Rights, Thomas Jefferson’s Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, and James Madison’s leadership role in securing adoption of the Bill of Rights by the First Congress.
Virginia SOL GOVT.3
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the concepts of democracy by
a) recognizing the fundamental worth and dignity of the individual;
b) recognizing the equality of all citizens under the law;
c) recognizing majority rule and minority rights;
d) recognizing the necessity of compromise;
e) recognizing the freedom of the individual.
Virginia SOL GOVT.4
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Constitution of the United States by
a) examining the ratification debates and The Federalist;
b) identifying the purposes for government stated in the Preamble;
c) examining the fundamental principles upon which the Constitution of the United States is based, including the rule of law, consent of the governed, limited government, separation of powers, and federalism;
d) illustrating the structure of the national government outlined in Article I, Article II, and Article III;
e) describing the amendment process.
Virginia SOL K.1
The student will recognize that history describes events and people of other times and places by
a) identifying examples of past events in legends, stories, and historical accounts of Pocahontas, George Washington, Betsy Ross, and Abraham Lincoln;
b) identifying the people and events honored by the holidays of Thanksgiving Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, and Independence Day (Fourth of July).
Virginia SOL K.2
The student will describe everyday life in the present and in the past and begin to recognize that things change over time.
Virginia SOL K.4
The student will use simple maps and globes to
a) develop an awareness that a map is a drawing of a place to show where things are located and that a globe is a round model of the Earth;
b) describe places referenced in stories and real-life situations;
c) locate land and water features.
Virginia SOL USI.1
The student will demonstrate skills for historical and geographical analysis and responsible citizenship, including the ability to
a) identify and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history to 1865;
b) make connections between the past and the present;
c) sequence events in United States history from pre-Columbian times to 1865;
d) interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives;
e) evaluate and discuss issues orally and in writing;
f) analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events;
g) distinguish between parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude;
h) interpret patriotic slogans and excerpts from notable speeches and documents;
i) identify the costs and benefits of specific choices made, including the consequences, both intended and unintended, of the decisions and how people and nations responded to positive and negative incentives.

Virginia SOL USI.4The student will demonstrate knowledge of European exploration in North America and West Africa by a) describing the motivations for, obstacles to, and accomplishments of the Spanish, French, Portuguese, and English explorations; b) describing cultural and economic interactions between Europeans and American Indians that led to cooperation and conflict, with emphasis on the American Indian concept of land; c) identifying the location and describing the characteristics of West African societies (Ghana, Mali, and Songhai) and their interactions with traders.
Virginia SOL USI.5
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the factors that shaped colonial America by
a) describing the religious and economic events and conditions that led to the colonization of America;
b) describing life in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies, with emphasis on how people interacted with their environment to produce goods and services, including examples of specialization and interdependence;
c) describing colonial life in America from the perspectives of large landowners, farmers, artisans, women, free African Americans, indentured servants, and enslaved African Americans;
d) identifying the political and economic relationships between the colonies and Great Britain.
Virginia SOL USI.6
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the causes and results of the American Revolution by
a) identifying the issues of dissatisfaction that led to the American Revolution;
b) identifying how political ideas shaped the revolutionary movement in America and led to the Declaration of Independence;
c) describing key events and the roles of key individuals in the American Revolution, with emphasis on George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and Patrick Henry;
d) explaining reasons why the colonies were able to defeat Great Britain.

Virginia SOL USI.7
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the challenges faced by the new nation by
a) identifying the weaknesses of the government established by the Articles of Confederation;
b) describing the historical development of the Constitution of the United States;
c) describing the major accomplishments of the first five presidents of the United States.

Virginia SOL USI.8The student will demonstrate knowledge of westward expansion and reform in America from 1801 to 1861 by a) describing territorial expansion and how it affected the political map of the United States, with emphasis on the Louisiana Purchase, the Lewis and Clark expedition, and the acquisitions of Florida, Texas, Oregon, and California; b) identifying the geographic and economic factors that influenced the westward movement of settlers; c) describing the impact of inventions, including the cotton gin, the reaper, the steamboat, and the steam locomotive, on life in America; d) identifying the main ideas of the abolitionist and women’s suffrage movements.
Virginia SOL USI.9The student will demonstrate knowledge of the causes, major events, and effects of the Civil War by a) describing the cultural, economic, and constitutional issues that divided the nation; b) explaining how the issues of states’ rights and slavery increased sectional tensions; c) identifying on a map the states that seceded from the Union and those that remained in the Union; d) describing the roles of Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, and Frederick Douglass in events leading to and during the war; e) using maps to explain critical developments in the war, including major battles; f) describing the effects of war from the perspectives of Union and Confederate soldiers (including African American soldiers), women, and enslaved African Americans.
Virginia SOL USII.1The student will demonstrate skills for historical and geographical analysis and responsible citizenship, including the ability to a) analyze and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history from 1865 to the present; b) make connections between the past and the present; c) sequence events in United States history from 1865 to the present; d) interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives; e) evaluate and debate issues orally and in writing; f) analyze and interpret maps that include major physical features; g) use parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude to describe hemispheric location; h) interpret patriotic slogans and excerpts from notable speeches and documents; i) identify the costs and benefits of specific choices made, including the consequences, both intended and unintended, of the decisions and how people and nations responded to positive and negative incentives.
Virginia SOL USII.4USII.4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of how life changed after the Civil War by a) identifying the reasons for westward expansion, including its impact on American Indians; b) explaining the reasons for the increase in immigration, growth of cities, new inventions, and challenges arising from this expansion; c) describing racial segregation, the rise of “Jim Crow,” and other constraints faced by African Americans and other groups in the post-Reconstruction South; d) explaining the impact of new inventions, the rise of big business, the growth of industry, and life on American farms; e) describing the impact of the Progressive Movement on child labor, working conditions, the rise of organized labor, women’s suffrage, and the temperance movement.
Virginia SOL VS.1The student will demonstrate skills for historical and geographical analysis and responsible citizenship, including the ability to: a) identify and interpret artifacts and primary and secondary source documents to understand events in history; b) determine cause-and-effect relationships; c) compare and contrast historical events; d) draw conclusions and make generalizations; e) make connections between past and present; f) sequence events in Virginia history; g) interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives; h) evaluate and discuss issues orally and in writing; i) analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events.
Virginia SOL VS.3
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the first permanent English settlement in America by
a) explaining the reasons for English colonization;
b) describing how geography influenced the decision to settle at Jamestown;
c) identifying the importance of the charters of the Virginia Company of London in establishing the Jamestown settlement;
d) identifying the importance of the General Assembly (1619) as the first representative legislative body in English America;
e) identifying the importance of the arrival of Africans and English women to the Jamestown settlement;
f) describing the hardships faced by settlers at Jamestown and the changes that took place to ensure survival;
g) describing the interactions between the English settlers and the native peoples, including the contributions of Powhatan to the survival of the settlers.

Virginia SOL VS.5
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of Virginia in the American Revolution by
a) identifying the reasons why the colonies went to war with Great Britain, as expressed in the Declaration of Independence;
b) identifying the various roles played by whites, enslaved African Americans, free African Americans, and American Indians in the Revolutionary War era, including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, and James Lafayette;
c) identifying the importance of the Battle of Great Bridge, the ride of Jack Jouett, and the American victory at Yorktown.

Virginia SOL VUS.1
The student will demonstrate skills for historical and geographical analysis and responsible citizenship, including the ability to
a) identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary source documents, records, and data, including artifacts, diaries, letters, photographs, journals, newspapers, historical accounts, and art, to increase understanding of events and life in the United States;
b) evaluate the authenticity, authority, and credibility of sources;
c) formulate historical questions and defend findings, based on inquiry and interpretation;
d) develop perspectives of time and place, including the construction of maps and various timelines of events, periods, and personalities in American history;
e) communicate findings orally and in analytical essays or comprehensive papers;
f) develop skills in discussion, debate, and persuasive writing with respect to enduring issues and determine how divergent viewpoints have been addressed and reconciled;
g) apply geographic skills and reference sources to understand how relationships between humans and their environment have changed over time;
h) interpret the significance of excerpts from famous speeches and other documents;
i) identify the costs and benefits of specific choices made, including the consequences, both intended and unintended, of the decisions and how people and nations responded to positive and negative incentives.
Virginia SOL VUS.3
The student will describe how the values and institutions of European economic and political life took root in the colonies and how slavery reshaped European and African life in the Americas.
Virginia SOL VUS.4
The student will demonstrate knowledge of events and issues of the Revolutionary Period by
a) analyzing how the political ideas of John Locke and those expressed in Common Sense helped shape the Declaration of Independence;
b) evaluating how key principles in the Declaration of Independence grew in importance to become unifying ideas of American democracy;
c) describing the political differences among the colonists concerning separation from Great Britain;
d) analyzing reasons for colonial victory in the Revolutionary War.
Virginia SOL VUS.5
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues involved in the creation and ratification of the Constitution of the United States and how the principles of limited government, consent of the governed, and the social contract are embodied in it by
a) explaining the origins of the Constitution, including the Articles of Confederation;
b) identifying the major compromises necessary to produce the Constitution, and the roles of James Madison and George Washington;
c) examining the significance of the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom in the framing of the Bill of Rights;
d) assessing the arguments of Federalists and Anti-Federalists during the ratification debates and their relevance to political debate today;
e) appraising how John Marshall’s precedent-setting decisions established the Supreme Court as an independent and equal branch of the national government.
Virginia SOL VUSI.8VUS.8 The student will demonstrate knowledge of how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through the early twentieth century by a) explaining the relationship among territorial expansion, westward movement of the population, new immigration, growth of cities, the role of the railroads, and the admission of new states to the United States; b) describing the transformation of the American economy from a primarily agrarian to a modern industrial economy and identifying major inventions that improved life in the United States; c) analyzing prejudice and discrimination during this time period, with emphasis on “Jim Crow” and the responses of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois; d) identifying the causes and impact of the Progressive Movement, including the excesses of the Gilded Age, child labor and antitrust laws, the rise of labor unions, and the success of the women’s suffrage movement.
Virginia SOL WG.2The student will analyze how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface by a) identifying regional climatic patterns and weather phenomena and their effects on people and places; b) describing how humans influence the environment and are influenced by it; c) explaining how technology affects one’s ability to modify the environment and adapt to it.
Virginia SOL WG.9
The student will analyze the global patterns and networks of economic interdependence by
a) identifying factors, including comparative advantage, that influence economic activities and trade
b) describing ways that economic and social interactions have changed over time
c) mapping, describing, and evaluating the formation of economic unions

Virginia SOL WHII.4
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the impact of the European Age of Discovery and expansion into the Americas by
a) explaining the roles and economic motivations of explorers and conquistadors
c) explaining migration, settlement patterns, cultural diffusion, and social classes in the colonized areas
e) mapping and explaining the triangular trade
Virginia SOL WHII.9.E The student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of the Industrial Revolution during the nineteenth century by assessing the impact of European economic and military power on Africa and Asia, with emphasis on the competition for resources and the responses of colonized peoples.
collapse  OAH National History Standards in Historical Thinking
Standard 1: Chronological ThinkingStudents Should Be Able to:
A. Distinguish between past, present, and future time.
B. Identify in historical narratives the temporal structure of a historical narrative or story: its beginning, middle, and end (the latter defined as the outcome of a particular beginning).
C. Establish temporal order in constructing historical narratives of their own: working forward from some beginning through its development, to some end or outcome; working backward from some issue, problem, or event to explain its origins and its development over time.
D. Measure and calculate calendar time by days, weeks, months, years, decades, centuries, and millennia, from points of the calendar system: BC (before Christ) and AD(Anno Domini, "in the year of our Lord") in the Gregorian calendar and the contemporary secular designation for these same dates, BCE (before the Common Era) and CE (in the Common Era); and compare with the fixed points of other calendar systems such as the Roman (753 BC, the founding of the city of Rome) and the Muslim (622 AD, the hegira).
E. Interpret data presented in time lines and create time lines by designating appropriate equidistant intervals of time and recording events according to the temporal order which they occurred.
F. Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration in which historical developments have unfolded, apply them to explain historical continuity and change.
G. Compare alternative models for periodization by identifying the organizing principles on which each is based.
Standard 2: Historical Comprehension
Students Should Be Able to:
A. Reconstruct the literal meaning of a historical passage by identifying who was involved, what happened, where it happened, what events led to these developments, and what consequences or outcomes followed.
B. Identify the central question(s) the historical narrative addresses and the purpose, perspective, or point of view from which it has been constructed.
C. Read historical narratives imaginatively, taking into account (a) the historical context in which the event unfolded--values, outlook, options, and contingencies of time and place; and (b) what the narrative reveals of the individuals involved--their probable motives, fears, strengths, and weaknesses.
D. Evidence historical perspectives--the ability (a) to describe the past on its own terms, through the eyes and experiences of those who were there, as revealed through their literature, diaries, letters, debates, arts, artifacts, and the like; and (b) to "present-mindedness," judging the past solely in terms of present-day norms and values.
E. Draw upon data in historical maps in order to obtain or clarify information on the geographic setting in which the historical event occurred, its relative and absolute location, the distances and directions involved, the natural and man-made features of the place, and critical relationships in the spatial distributions of those features and the historical event occurring there.
F. Utilize visual and mathematical data presented in charts, pie and bar graphs, flow charts, Venn diagrams, and graphic organizers to clarify, illustrate, or elaborate upon information presented in the historical narrative.
G. Draw upon visual, literary, and musical sources including: (a) photographs, paintings, cartoons, and architectural drawings; (b) novels, poetry, and plays; and (c) folk, popular, classical music to clarify, illustrate, or elaborate upon information presented in the historical narrative.
Standard 3: Historical Analysis and Interpretation
Students Should Be Able to:
A. Identify the author or source of the historical document or narrative and assess its credibility.
B. Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas, values, personalities, behaviors, and institutions by identifying likenesses and differences.
C. Differentiate between historical facts and historical interpretations, but acknowledge also that the two are related: that the facts the historian reports are selected and reflect therefore the historian's judgment of what is most significant about the past.
D. Consider multiple perspectives of various peoples in the past by demonstrating their differing motives, beliefs, interests, hopes, and fears.
E. Analyze cause-and-effect relationships bearing in mind multiple causation including (a) the importance of the individual in history; (b) the influence of ideas, human interests, and beliefs; and (c) the role of chance, the accidental, and the irrational.
F. Challenge arguments of historical inevitability by formulating examples of historical contingency, of how different choices could have led to different consequences.
G. Compare competing historical narratives by contrasting different historians' choice of questions, and their use of sources reflecting different experiences, perspectives, beliefs, and points of view, and by demonstrating how an emphasis on different causes contributes to different interpretations.
H. Hold interpretations of history as tentative, subject to change as new information is uncovered, new voices heard, and new interpretations broached.
I. Evaluate major debates among historians concerning alternative interpretations of the past.
J. Hypothesize the influence of the past, including both the limitations and the opportunities made possible by past decisions.
Standard 4: Historical Research Capabilities
Students Should Be Able to:
A. Formulate historical questions from encounters with historical documents, eyewitness accounts, letters, diaries, artifacts, photos, historical sites, art, architecture, and other records from the past.
B. Obtain historical data from a variety of sources, including: library and museum collections, historic sites, historical photos, journals, diaries, eyewitness accounts, newspapers, and the like; documentary films; and so on.
C. Interrogate historical data by uncovering the social, political, and economic context in which it was created; testing the data source for its credibility, authority, authenticity, internal consistency and completeness; and detecting and evaluating bias, distortion, and propaganda by omission, suppression, or invention of facts.
D. Identify the gaps in the available records and marshal contextual knowledge and perspectives of the time and place in order to elaborate imaginatively upon the evidence, fill in the gaps deductively, and construct a sound historical interpretation.
Standard 5: Historical Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making
Students Should Be Able to:
A. Identify issues and problems in the past and analyze the interests, values, perspectives, and points of view of those involved in the situation.
B. Marshal evidence of antecedent circumstances and contemporary factors contributing to problems and alternative courses of action.
C. Identify relevant historical antecedents and differentiate from those that are inappropriate and irrelevant to contemporary issues.
D. Evaluate alternative courses of action in terms of ethical considerations, the interests of those affected by the decision, and the long- and short-term consequences of each.
E. Formulate a position or course of action on an issue by identifying the nature of the problem, analyzing the underlying factors contributing to the problem, and choosing a plausible solution from a choice of carefully evaluated options.
F. Evaluate the implementation of a decision by analyzing the interests it served; estimating the position, power, and priority of each player involved; assessing the ethical dimensions of the decision; and evaluating its costs and benefits from a variety of perspectives.